The epithelial cell–derived cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25 are central regulators of type 2 immunity, which drives a broad array of allergic responses. Often characterized as “alarmins” that are released by the barrier epithelium in response to external insults, these epithelial cell–derived cytokines were initially thought to act only early in allergic inflammation. Indeed, TSLP can condition dendritic cells to initiate type 2 responses, and IL-33 may influence susceptibility to asthma through its role in establishing the immune environment in the perinatal lungs. However, TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 all regulate a broad spectrum of innate immune cell populations and are particularly potent in eliciting and activating type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that may act throughout allergic inflammation. Recent data suggest that a TSLP/ILC axis may mediate steroid resistance in asthma. Recent identification of memory Th2 cell subsets that are characterized by high receptor expression for TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 further supports a role for these cytokines in allergic exacerbations. There is therefore growing interest in developing biologics that target TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25. This Review provides an overview of TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25 and the development of blocking antibodies that target these epithelial cell–derived cytokines.
Florence Roan, Kazushige Obata-Ninomiya, Steven F. Ziegler
Usage data is cumulative from April 2019 through February 2020.
Usage information is collected from two different sources: this site (JCI) and Pubmed Central (PMC). JCI information (compiled daily) shows human readership based on methods we employ to screen out robotic usage. PMC information (aggregated monthly) is also similarly screened of robotic usage.
Various methods are used to distinguish robotic usage. For example, Google automatically scans articles to add to its search index and identifies itself as robotic; other services might not clearly identify themselves as robotic, or they are new or unknown as robotic. Because this activity can be misinterpreted as human readership, data may be re-processed periodically to reflect an improved understanding of robotic activity. Because of these factors, readers should consider usage information illustrative but subject to change.